Orthopaedics is a branch of medical science or speciality, majorly focused on diagnosing, treating, and preventing musculoskeletal conditions and injuries. This field deals with bones, joints, ligaments, tendons, muscles and related structures. 

Orthopaedic specialists, known as orthopaedic surgeons, often perform surgeries such as joint replacements, fracture repairs and treatments for conditions like arthritis and sports injuries. They also provide non-surgical treatments, rehabilitation and advice for maintaining musculoskeletal health.
It encompasses various branches and plays a crucial role in modern medicine. Here’s an overview:

1. General Orthopaedics: This branch covers a wide spectrum of musculoskeletal conditions, including fractures, sprains, and arthritis, and serves patients across various age groups. General orthopaedists provide non-surgical and surgical treatments.

2. Orthopaedic Surgery: Orthopaedic surgeons perform surgeries to repair or replace damaged bones, joints, and soft tissues. Common procedures include joint replacements, fracture fixation, and ligament reconstructions.

3. Sports Medicine: Sports medicine specialists treat athletes and active individuals, focusing on sports-related injuries such as ACL tears, muscle strains, and concussions. They often work closely with physical therapists and trainers.

4. Pediatric Orthopaedics: Pediatric orthopaedists specialize in treating musculoskeletal issues in children, including congenital deformities, growth plate injuries, and scoliosis.
5. Orthopaedic Trauma: These specialists manage severe musculoskeletal injuries, such as multiple fractures and complex fractures, often in emergency settings.

6. Spine Surgery: Spine surgeons address conditions affecting the spine, including herniated discs, spinal stenosis, and scoliosis. They may perform spinal fusions or minimally invasive procedures.

7. Hand and Upper Extremity Surgery: These experts focus on conditions of the hand, wrist, elbow, and shoulder. They treat issues like carpal tunnel syndrome, tendon injuries, and fractures.

8. Foot and Ankle Surgery: Foot and ankle surgeons handle problems related to the lower extremities, such as bunions, plantar fasciitis, and Achilles tendon injuries.

9. Musculoskeletal Oncology: This subspecialty deals with the diagnosis and treatment of bone and soft tissue tumors, both benign and malignant.

10. Orthopedic Rehabilitation: Orthopaedic rehab specialists work on post-surgery recovery and non-operative management of musculoskeletal conditions. They use physical therapy and other modalities to improve function.

11. Orthopaedic Research: Ongoing research in orthopaedics is essential for developing new treatments and improving patient outcomes.

Orthopaedics plays a significant role in improving the quality of life for patients with musculoskeletal issues

From relieving pain to restoring mobility. It’s an evolving field that continues to advance with innovations in surgical techniques, implants, and rehabilitation methods.